* Not enough liquidity for amount of metal in financing deals* Aluminium open interest dwindles from 2011 peak* "Squeezes" likely to be a feature of the marketBy Susan Thomas and Josephine MasonLONDON/NEW YORK, Feb 21 The $80 billion aluminium market is starting to crack under the weight of finance deals that have locked up millions of tonnes of the metal as collateral in warehouses. For years, financial institutions have been buying physical aluminium and simultaneously selling futures. Stock financing is particularly attractive for banks and other such institutions, which have access to cheap funding to pay for the inventory. The strategy relies on the futures market remaining in a "contango" structure, where the price of a futures contract tends to decline as it approaches the delivery date. The aluminium market, which was in contango for most of last year, whipped into the opposite structure, called backwardation, in December, when spot prices were at a $44 a tonne premium to prices in three months' time CMAL0-3. And backwardations are cropping up at regular intervals along the aluminium forward curve this year. This would normally mean market tightness and consumers scrambling for metal. But not in this case, analysts and traders say."These kinks in the curve are not fundamentally justified," Barclays analyst Nicholas Snowdon said. There is currently a glut of aluminium. Instead the tightening in spreads is reflecting a lack of urgency in hedging by consumers along the curve for 2013, which means forward selling pressure from inventory financiers and producers that has not been offset by buying, Snowdon said.
There are backwardations along the forward curve in June-July, September-October and December 2013-January 2014. Most stock financing deals are executed for a few months at a time and must be periodically rolled forward. The financier must buy back its short position ahead of maturity and then sell futures contracts for a date further ahead. The need to buy back short futures positions as part of the roll leaves the financier vulnerable to a squeeze.
"If there's a lot of demand for metal for financing, there's got to be someone on the other side of the deal. Traditionally there had been a lot of money coming in from long-only indices, and I'm not sure that is still the case," Citi analyst David Wilson said."It does suggest that there is no longer enough liquidity for the amount of metal in financing. This is the bigger issue."In a typical stock financing deal, the financial institution counts on being able to buy back the short futures position for less than it originally sold the position for, making a profit. In the event that the market moves into backwardation, and the futures position costs more to buy back than it was sold for, and the financial institution may have to deliver the physical warehouse metal against its short position. Any geniune tightness in aluminium supplies would be likely to appear as a backwardation near the front end of the curve and that is not the case this year.
"We're forecasting a big surplus this year. Moreover, if there was tightness it would come out in front-end time spreads," Snowdon said. "This is more a reflection of the transactional imbalance caused by people undertaking inventory financing and in turn participants pre-positioning for those financing deals being ultimately rolled forward."In other words, traders say, it has become easy to squeeze the aluminium market, but it's not a typical squeeze."June-July has tightened up since January because that's where people are pushing these forward hedges to," said a London-based metal trader."You need discrete lenders of June-July and they don't exist any more. All it takes is someone to borrow 1,000 lots and suddenly the market gets tight and the market squeezes itself because there's a lack of liquidity."A big hedge fund has been mentioned by several metals traders as being behind a squeeze in June-July, but many said the identity of the protagonist is not relevant."The name is not important. What's important is the fact that the aluminium market has become easy to squeeze," said a London-based aluminium trader. Whoever it was, they did not need to take a sizeable position to prompt the backwardation, the traders said."It seemed to develop a life of its own because panic sets in between those having to roll financing deals, CTAs
HONG KONG, June 30 (LPC) - Syndicated lending in Asia Pacific (ex-Japan) plummeted 13 percent to $210.7 billion in the first half of 2016 from $241.94 billion in the same period last year, extending earlier declines as the region reels from the economic slowdown in China. The drop in loan volume in the first six months of 2016 is the third consecutive half-year decline since the end of 2014. The number of loans transacted totalled 573, down from 760 deals completed in the corresponding period in 2015, according to Thomson Reuters LPC data."The first half has been characterised by lower volumes and deal count, pricing and fee compression combined with abundant liquidity. The key for any bank serious about running an originate-to-distribute platform has been to take the right risk and reward decisions around underwriting in specific sectors, countries, thinking laterally around structures, and being aggressive around certain client situations," said Cristian Jonsson, global head of loan syndications at Standard Chartered. Lenders have leaped at any opportunity to book assets, especially loans from high-grade credits. As a result, transactions for Chinese technology companies such as Alibaba Group, Baidu Inc and Tencent Holdings Ltd , along with other blue chips like Hong Kong's MTR Corp have met with a strong reception."Lenders remain hungry for assets and this is evident in the reception many of the loans have received from the market. There has hardly been a failed syndication this year. Chinese, Japanese and Singaporean lenders are aggressive. Japanese regional banks have become more active outside Japan than they have been historically," said John Corrin, global head of loan syndications at ANZ.
Uncertainty and volatility in global financial markets have increased in the aftermath of Britain's vote last week to leave the European Union. Other political events on the calendar such as national elections in Australia in early July, the appointments of a new prime minister in the UK and a new central bank governor in India, and the presidential elections in the US in November will add to the uncertainty. Nonetheless, loan bankers are looking forward to some jumbo transactions that are in the pipeline, including those for AusGrid, China National Chemical Corp and Malaysia's Petroliam Nasional."2016 will be a middling year for loans and volumes are likely to be marginally lower than 2015," said Corrin. "It will not be a banner year, but it certainly won't be one of gloom and doom. The second half of 2016 shows promise as loan volumes are showing signs of a pick-up."
HONG KONG, INDIA SHINE While China remains the driver of the loan market in Asia, the country disappointed with a significant drop in volume in the first half to $60.2 billion - 22.1 percent lower than the $79.26 billion raised in the same period in 2015."The Greater China loan market in 1H16 has been impacted by the easing measures implemented by the PBOC [People's Bank of China]. This has resulted in reduced offshore issuance and an increase in debt raising onshore given the greater liquidity available and preference to borrow in renminbi," said Jonsson. Nonetheless, China was still the largest market in Asia (ex-Japan), with Hong Kong following close behind. Borrowers in the former British colony raised $58.03 billion of loans in the first six months of 2016, a 35 percent increase year-on-year.
That increase was largely thanks to the return of rare borrowers such as MTR Corp, which raised HK$25 billion
May 13 The government of the Australian state of New South Wales, home to the country's financial capital Sydney, will send a group to Dubai this week to discuss ways to develop the Islamic finance industry, officials said. The delegation, led by New South Wales premier Barry O'Farrell and including financial services professionals, will explore regulatory and legal issues at a roundtable discussion with the Dubai Export Development Corp on Tuesday."The event will discuss business opportunities in New South Wales, with particular attention given to Islamic finance," an Australian government official, who declined to be named under briefing rules, told Reuters. The delegation will also visit Abu Dhabi and Lebanon. With proximity to southeast Asia, where Islamic finance is growing rapidly, Australia could play a role in the industry, officials believe. But efforts to pass the necessary legislation at a federal level have been slow, so the state government wants to get involved."The state government is very interested and trying to be proactive in getting Middle East and local players together to work out a deal," said Salim Farrar, senior lecturer at the University of Sydney Law School. Passing legislation governing Islamic finance will require a series of politically charged debates, Farrar said.
But support is building in the business community, said Talal Yassine, managing director at Sydney-based Crescent Wealth. "Clearly there is going to be a push to get Islamic finance up in Australia."TAX
Australia faces a challenge shared by other jurisdictions new to Islamic finance: taxation. Certain Islamic finance structures, particularly sukuk or Islamic bonds, can attract double or even triple tax duties because they require multiple transfers of title of the underlying asset. Obtaining tax amendments to alleviate this appears difficult to push through the minority government of Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard."At the federal level developments are going nowhere fast," said Matthew Stutsel, national head of taxation for consultants KPMG in Sydney.
The Australian Board of Taxation released a discussion paper in October 2010 which prompted consultation meetings and submissions. The final review was delivered to the government's assistant treasurer last June. But no further action has been taken, and the public release of the report "is a matter for the Government to decide", a Board of Taxation statement said. The government's attention has been focused on mining and carbon tax initiatives, and an attempt to deliver a budget surplus; extending tax breaks in other areas might not sit well with voters. Elections are due in 2013. But while federal-level discussions have been difficult, New South Wales is interested in Islamic finance partly because of the need to fund state projects such as upgrading railway networks and refinancing public utilities. Islamic investors operate large pools of investment funds in southeast Asia and the Gulf. Attracting investment into infrastructure and other sectors is an important part of the state government's efforts to position Sydney as a leading international financial centre, the Australian official said. Stutsel said work was being done within the state government on infrastructure proposals. "The issue is largely going to be withholding tax on sukuk, where we would be looking to leverage a tax law change," he said. Tax incentives might, for example, be offered for Islamic investors in public-private partnerships. Typically, 10 to 15 percent of New South Wales infrastructure has been delivered using , according to a government report. Granting special tax treatment for such projects cold avoid the need for a full tax amendment.